The effect of quarry waste dust and reclaimed asphalt filler in hydraulically bound mixtures containing plasterboard gypsum and GGBS

Kande Bure Bai Kamara, Esmaiel Ganjian, Morteza Khorami

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)
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In this research, a novel Hydraulically Bound Mixture (HBM) is successfully developed using waste minerals and industrial by-products to fully replace cement in road (base) and foundation materials. HBM is a mixture that sets and hardens by hydraulic reaction and usually has compaction by rolling. The materials used were reclaimed asphalt filler (RAF), quarry waste dust (QWD), plasterboard gypsum (PG) and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS). A statistical mixture design programme – Minitab 18, was used for the design of the experiment. Compressive strength, high pressure flow tests and freeze/thaw tests were carried out to determine the mechanical stability of the by-product binders and performance determined in the strength development by time. It was concluded that cement can be 100% replaced with the named industrial by-products. Test results revealed that the presence of GGBS is highly beneficial between 40 and 60% replacement by weight. Strength development on the hydraulic paste comprising of this GGBS replacement has a reduced strength during the first 28 days. After 28 days and up to 90 days when the maximum strength is gained, strength increases with the presence of GGBS of up to 60%. The results showed that the top four mixes in the two groups discussed in this research meet the standard requirements for road (base) and foundation materials. • Cement can be fully replaced with industrial waste minerals and by-products. • Mix proportion of 20%PG, 20%RAF and 60%GGBS can achieve compressive strength of 41 MPa. • Freeze-thaw experiments had negative effect on long-term durability of two top mixes. • 40–60%GGBS long term strength shows delay in strength development.

Original languageEnglish
Article number123584
JournalJournal of Cleaner Production
Early online date8 Aug 2020
Publication statusPublished - 10 Jan 2021

Bibliographical note

NOTICE: this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Journal of Cleaner Production. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Journal of Cleaner Production, 279, (2021)
DOI: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.123584

© 2020, Elsevier. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International


  • gypsum
  • reclaimed asphalt filler
  • quarry waste dust
  • GGBS
  • hydraulically bound mixtures
  • pavement
  • Quarry waste dust
  • Hydraulically bound mixtures
  • Pavement
  • Reclaimed asphalt filler
  • Gypsum

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Strategy and Management


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