Background: The prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) during childhood and adolescence is rising significantly worldwide. Previous studies have shown that following a healthy dietary pattern, like the Mediterranean diet (MD), might be an efficacious approach for the prevention and management of MetS during childhood. In the present study, we aimed to examine the effect of MD on inflammatory markers and components of MetS among adolescent girls with MetS. Methods: This randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 70 girl adolescents with metabolic syndrome. Patients in the intervention group followed a prescribed MD, while participants in the control group received dietary advice according to the food pyramid. The length of intervention was 12 weeks. Participants’ dietary intakes were evaluated using three 1-day food records throughout the study. Anthropometric measures, inflammatory markers, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and hematological factors were assessed at the baseline and end of the trial. An intention-to-treat approach was taken into account for the statistical analysis. Results: After 12 weeks, participants in the intervention group had lower weight (Ptime*group ≤ 0/001), body mass index (BMI) (Ptime*group ≤ 0/001), and waist circumference (WC) (Ptime*group ≤ 0/001) compared with those in the control group. In addition, MD resulted in a significantly reduced systolic blood pressure compared to the those in the control group (Ptime*group ≤ 0/001). In terms of metabolic variables, MD led to a significant decrease in fasting blood glucose (FBS) (Ptime*group ≤ 0/001), triglycerides (TG) (Ptime*group ≤ 0/001), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) (Ptime*group ≤ 0/001), homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (Ptime*group = 0/02) and a meaningful increase in serum levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (Ptime*group ≤ 0/001). In addition, adherence to the MD resulted in a significant reduction in serum levels of inflammatory markers including Interleukin 6 (IL-6) (Ptime*group = 0/02) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) (Ptime*group = 0/02). However, no significant effect was seen on serum levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) (Ptime*group = 0/43). Conclusion: Overall, the findings of the present study revealed that consumption of MD for 12 weeks resulted in a favorable effect on anthropometric measures, components of MetS, as well as on some inflammatory biomarkers.
|Journal||Journal of Endocrinological Investigation|
|Early online date||16 Feb 2023|
|Publication status||E-pub ahead of print - 16 Feb 2023|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The financial support for this study comes from the Tehran Endocrine and Metabolism Research Center and the Tehran University of Medical Science. The funder had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
© 2023, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Italian Society of Endocrinology (SIE).
- Mediterranean diet
- Metabolic syndrome
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism