Background: Prostate cancer is a major malignancy, affecting men, worldwide. The protective effect of dietary or supplemental lycopene on prostate cancer has been reported in several studies; however, the findings are equivocal. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplemental lycopene on PSA level, by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Methods: We searched online databases, including PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science, up to 9 Jun 2020, to obtain relevant publications. The publication search was not limited by language or date. Results: A total of 1036 records were identified in the systematic search; from these, 9 were included in the systematic review and 6 in meta-analysis. The pooled analysis of the 6 studies showed no significant differences in PSA levels in subjects treated with lycopene or tomato extract containing lycopene (WMD= −0.12 ng/ml; 95% CI: −0.62, 0.38 ng/ml; P = 0.64) compared to the control. Conclusion: Overall, tomato extracts or lycopene treatment yielded no significant effect on PSA level compared to the control. However, more consistent clinical trials, with larger sample sizes, are required to better discern the actual effect of tomato extract or lycopene on PSA level.
Bibliographical notePublished by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license
FunderThis research was supported by grant No: 99-3-15-19374 from Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
- Prostate cancer
- Prostate specific antigen
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Complementary and Manual Therapy
- Complementary and alternative medicine
- Advanced and Specialised Nursing