The effect of chocolate-based products on some appetite-related hormones: a systematic review

Zahra Shirzadi, Kurosh Djafarian, Maryam Safabakhsh, Cain C T Clark, Sakineh Shab-Bidar

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    Studies have shown the effects of chocolate-based products on appetite-related indicators; however, the results of these studies are equivocal. Thus, the aim of the present study was to conduct a systematic review of studies investigating the acute and long-term response of appetite-related hormones to chocolate intake in adults. A systematic search of MEDLINE and EMBASE for published studies, in English, was performed from inception up to November 2018. It appears that ghrelin and leptin are not responsible for the satiating effect of chocolate products. Gastric infusion of milk chocolate elicited a greater increase in cholecystokinin (CCK), in comparison with oral ingestion of milk chocolate and gastric infusion of non-caloric products. Moreover, viscosity seems to have no effect on active CCK and glucagon-like peptide-1. Due to the heterogeneity between studies, limited sample, low quality of evidence, and substantial variation in methods and chocolate products, caution is suggested in interpreting these results.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)785-792
    Number of pages8
    JournalInternational Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
    Issue number7
    Early online date4 Mar 2020
    Publication statusPublished - 2 Oct 2020


    • Chocolate
    • appetite
    • appetite hormones
    • systematic review
    • meta-analysis


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