The effect of a low renal acid load diet on blood pressure, lipid profile, and blood glucose indices in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized clinical trial

Maryam Armin, Zahra Heidari, Gholamreza Askari, Bijan Iraj, Cain C. T. Clark, Mohammad Hossein Rouhani

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    Abstract

    Background: Observational studies have reported that dietary renal acid load has an important role in insulin resistance and metabolic factors. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of a low renal acid load diet (LRALD) on blood pressure, lipid profile, and blood glucose indices in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: In this parallel randomized clinical trial, 80 patients with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to the LRALD (n = 40) or control (n = 40) groups, for 12 weeks. Both groups received a balanced diet and a list of nutritional recommendations based on healthy eating behaviors. In the LRALD group, food items with low renal acid load were prescribed. Primary outcomes including: fasting blood glucose (FBG), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fasting serum insulin, quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI), homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA) and secondary outcomes including: weight, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL). were measured at baseline and end of the study. The present trial was registered at IRCT.ir (IRCT20130903014551N5). Results: Seventy subjects completed the study (n = 35 in control group and n = 36 in LRALD). Weight (P < 0.001), body mass index (P < 0.001), FBG (P < 0.001), HbA1c (P < 0.001), SBP (P = 0.004), and TG (P = 0.049) were reduced and HDL (P = 0.002) was increased in both groups, compared with baseline. After adjusting for baseline values, DBP (P = 0.047) was reduced in the LRALD group compared with control group. Results had no changes after using intention to treat analysis. Conclusion: A LRALD may decrease DBP in type 2 diabetic patients. However, it elicited no significant effect on lipid profile compared with a healthy diet. Trial registration: This randomized clinical trial was registered at IRCT.ir (IRCT20130903014551N5)

    Original languageEnglish
    Article number18
    Number of pages8
    JournalNutrition Journal
    Volume22
    Issue number1
    Early online date15 Mar 2023
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - Dec 2023

    Bibliographical note

    © The Author(s) 2023. Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativeco mmons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data

    Keywords

    • Dietary renal acid load
    • Blood pressure
    • Lipid profiles
    • Glycemic control
    • Insulin resistance

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