The effect of 8 weeks of child designed vs teacher designed games on physical fitness and creativity in children 8–10 years

Maryam Mohammadi-Nia, Rasoul Yaali, Sadegh Amani-Shalamzari, Cain C.T. Clark

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    2 Citations (Scopus)


    A healthy and active lifestyle should start from an early age, as habits learned in childhood are more likely to endure. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of child-designed games and teacher-designed games on the physical fitness and creativity of children aged 8–10 years. Thirty children participating in a sports club were randomly divided into two groups: teacher-designed games (TDG) and child-designed games (CDG). Subjects practiced two sessions per week for eight weeks, each session lasting 60 min. Fitness factors, such as strength, muscle endurance, aerobic fitness, agility, speed, and creativity were assessed by valid tests before and after the protocols. A repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to analyze the data. The TDG intervention led to a significant improvement in KTK (37.1% vs. -3.2%) and agility (-3.7% vs. -0.4%) compared to CDG intervention, while CDG intervention was associated with a significant improvement in aerobic capacity (10.1% vs. 3.6%) and in the elaboration of creativity test (23.3% vs. 8.6%). Both groups demonstrated substantial improvements in handgrip strength, static balance, long jump, flexibility, core endurance, and creativity tests, with no significant difference between groups. There were no significant changes in anthropometric features following the intervention. The implementation of combined teacher-designed and child-designed approaches in children's classrooms, in addition to promoting all aspects of physical fitness, may be effective in enhancing physical fitness and creativity.
    Original languageEnglish
    Article number114030
    JournalPhysiology & Behavior
    Early online date23 Nov 2022
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2023


    • Fitness
    • Childhood
    • Cognition
    • Free game


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