The Dr Hadwen Trust for Humane Research: 39 years of replacement science

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1 Citation (Scopus)


The year 2009 will not be remembered mainly because it is the Chinese year of the ox, but probably, for many, because it is Charles Darwin's bicentenary, the 150th anniversary of the publication of his masterpiece. The Origin of Species, the 50th anniversary of the publication by Russell and Burch of The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique, where they introduced the concept of Three Rs, and also the 40th anniversary of the foundation of the Fund for the Replacement of Animals in Medical Experiments (FRAME). FRAME will always remain our senior, since the Dr Hadwen Trust for Humane Research is only celebrating its 39th anniversary this year! After four decades of learning, challenging, contesting, creating, promoting and advancing the Three Rs concept, the idea of the replacement of the use of animals in research has itself become a science, giving the old sterile debate between pro- and anti-vivisectionists a new dimension. Although scientific progress has been the main reason for such changes, it is important to remember that, without the people and organisations whose aim has been devoted to this cause, these changes might never have happened. Still, as illustrated by the 2008 statistics on animal procedures, many more changes will have to be made, and it is by considering the progress achieved during the last 40 years that we can find the strength and motivation to pursue our goal of scientific research and testing that no longer relies on animal-based techniques.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)39-43
Number of pages5
JournalAlternatives to Laboratory Animals
Issue numberSUPPL. 2
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2009
Externally publishedYes


  • Animal experimentation
  • Dr Hadwen Trust
  • Ethics
  • Replacement
  • Three Rs

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Toxicology
  • Medical Laboratory Technology


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