This study develops two novel charging strategies for lithium-ion batteries, designed to prevent the onset of lithium plating when the cells are charged at low ambient temperatures. Commercially available 3.1 Ah 18650-type cells with NCA and graphite electrodes have been selected for this study. Experimental results highlight that for these cells, lithium plating can be detected when the cells are charged with a traditional constant-current constant-voltage (CC-CV) profile at an ambient temperature of 5 °C and a charge rate of 1C. The occurrence of lithium plating is known to lead to a considerable capacity reduction. To avoid the onset of lithium plating with minimum impact on the charge time, two optimal charging strategies are proposed. The first is based on detecting the onset of lithium plating through the online analysis of the voltage relaxation profile (VRP). The second is to manage the cell charging process to achieve a pre-defined rate of battery degradation per charge cycle. Experimental results highlight that the capacity fade of cells using the proposed charging strategies can be significantly reduced compared to when charged using the conventional CC-CV approach by 45% and 70% respectively while minimizing their impact on the charging speed.
- Lithium plating
- Fast charging
- Lithium ion
- Voltage relaxation profile (VRP)
- Battery management system (BMS)