The concept of integration in mixed methods research: a step-by-step guide using an example study in physiotherapy

Glykeria Skamagki, Andrew King, Christine Carpenter, Charlotte Wåhlin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)
309 Downloads (Pure)


Integration is a unique attribute of Mixed Methods Research (MMR). However, some MMR studies, published in the field of physiotherapy and other allied health professions, have illustrated a lack of understanding of the concept of integration.

The purpose of this paper is to provide guidance for integrating elements of mixed methods research in order to effectively support evidence-based practice in health.

The concept of integration of findings is explained with reference to the author’s recent PhD study, which used a mixed methods exploratory sequential design. This article describes how the author used a narrative joint display to integrate findings from both the qualitative and survey phases of the study. Then, a step-by-step approach is introduced to guide the interpretation and integration of the findings.

This four-step approach demonstrates integration of the two different datasets: Creating a joint display, linking activity, establishing relationships, and interpreting and reporting. Tables and Figures are used to support detailed description and illustration of the integration process.

A joint display provides a visual representation of how the qualitative and quantitative findings in a MMR study can be integrated. In this way, interpretation of the data drawn from this process extend beyond the individual findings of each study component to facilitate a greater understanding of complex health care issues.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)197-204
Number of pages8
JournalPhysiotherapy Theory and Practice
Issue number2
Early online date7 Sept 2022
Publication statusPublished - 7 Sept 2022

Bibliographical note

© 2022 The Author(s). Published with license by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License (, which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


  • Mixed methods research
  • integration
  • joint display
  • guidance


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