The very small strain shear modulus (stiffness) of soils, Gmax, is one of the most important parameters for predicting ground movements and dynamic responses of geo-structures. In this study, the combined effect of clay fraction and moisture content on shear stiffness of an unsaturated sand-clay mixture at very small strains was investigated using bender elements. Compacted soil specimens were prepared at three different clay contents of 10, 20, and 30%, and at four different initial moisture contents of 3, 6, 9 and 12%. Bender element tests were carried out under isotropic and constant moisture content conditions and inside a modified triaxial testing system equipped with a pair of piezoelectric bender-extender elements. Gmax was calculated based on the velocity measurement of shear waves propagated through the specimen. The tests results showed that Gmax decreases approximately linearly with an increase in moisture content, and non-linearly with an increase in clay content. A basic empirical equation was derived from an examination of trends in evolution of Gmax with clay and moisture content. Additional empirical correlations were also derived for estimation of moisture content and degree of saturation based on the compression wave velocity measurements.
|Title of host publication||20th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering|
|Publication status||Accepted/In press - 12 Nov 2021|
|Event||20th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering - Sydney, Australia|
Duration: 1 May 2022 → 5 May 2022
Conference number: 20
|Conference||20th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering|
|Period||1/05/22 → 5/05/22|