The association of Carbohydrate Quality Index with cardiovascular disease risk factors among women with overweight and obesity: A cross-sectional study

Darya Khosravinia, Farideh Shiraseb, Atieh Mirzababaei, Shahin Jamili, Elnaz Daneshzad, Cain C. T. Clark, Khadijeh Mirzaei

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    Purpose: Diet is one of the most important factors influencing cardiovascular disease (CVD). The negative relationship between carbohydrate intake with lipid profiles and body weight has been previously investigated. However, this is the first study seeking to assess the association of carbohydrate quality index (CQI) with CVD risk factors. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 291 Iranian overweight and obese women, with a body mass index (BMI) ranging between 25 and 40 kg/m2, and aged 18–48 years. CQI scores were calculated by using a validated 168-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Biochemical and anthropometric measures were assessed using standard methods, and bioelectrical impedance was used to measure body composition. Results: We observed that fruits (P < 0.001), vegetables (P < 0.001), and protein (P = 0.002) intake were higher in participants with a higher score of the CQI. When we adjusted for potential confounders, we observed that the CQI was negatively related to systolic blood pressure (SBP) (β = −6.10; 95% CI = −10.11, −2.10; P = 0.003) and DBP (β = −3.11; 95% CI = −6.15, −0.08; P = 0.04). Also, greater adherence to a high CQI dietary pattern, compared to the reference group, was negatively related to HOMA-IR (β = −0.53; 95% CI = −0.94, −0.12) (P for trend = 0.01), WC (β = −3.18; 95% CI = −6.26, −0.10) (P for trend = 0.04), BMI (β = −1.21; 95% CI = −2.50, 0.07) (P for trend = 0.06), and BF (β = −2.06; 95% CI = −3.82, −0.30) (P for trend = 0.02). Conclusion: In line with previous studies, the CQI was inversely associated with blood pressure, WC, BMI, and BF. Further prospective and clinical trial studies are suggested to confirm these data.
    Original languageEnglish
    Article number987190
    Number of pages16
    JournalFrontiers in Nutrition
    Early online date8 Sept 2022
    Publication statusPublished - 8 Sept 2022

    Bibliographical note

    © 2022 Khosravinia, Shiraseb, Mirzababaei, Daneshzad, Jamili, Clark and Mirzaei. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms


    • Nutrition
    • cardiovascular disease risk factors
    • anthropometric measures
    • body composition
    • obesity
    • carbohydrate quality index


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