The association of appetite and hormones (leptin, ghrelin, and Insulin) with resting metabolic rate in overweight/ obese women: a case–control study

Sara Hajishizari, Hossein Imani, Sanaz Mehranfar, Mir Saeed Yekaninejad, Atieh Mirzababaei, Cain C.T. Clark, Khadijeh Mirzaei

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    3 Citations (Scopus)
    31 Downloads (Pure)


    Abstract: Objective: Low resting metabolic rate (RMR), as a risk factor for weight gain and obesity, can be influenced by many factors. Empirical research has confirmed the role of appetite and related hormones in obesity and energy intake. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between appetite and related hormones in overweight or obese Iranian women with normal and hypo RMR. Methods: This case–control study was conducted on 42 Iranian adult women (21 cases, and 21 controls), aged 18–48 years. An impedance body analyzer was used to obtain the body composition and an indirect calorimeter was used to assess the RMR. The Flint questionnaire was used to assess appetite, dietary intake, and physical activity were assessed by FFQ and IPAQ questionnaires respectively, and ELISA kits were used to assess leptin, ghrelin, and insulin hormones. Results: The results of the study demonstrated a negative association between ghrelin hormone level (β = -0.34, 95%CI = -61.70,-3.86, P-value = 0.027) and RMR, and a positive association between insulin hormone level (β = 0.48, 95%CI = 9.38–34.35, P-value = 0.001) and RMR. Also, results of the appetite questionnaire showed that, in general, both appetite (β = 0.32, 95%CI = -0.10–2.99 P-value = 0.044) and hunger variable (β = 0.30, 95%CI = 0.04–5.87, P-value = 0.047) have a positive association with RMR. There was no significant association between leptin levels and RMR. Conclusion: It is evident that appetite and related hormones have a potential role in promoting a normal RMR.
    Original languageEnglish
    Article number37
    Number of pages12
    JournalBMC Nutrition
    Issue number1
    Early online date29 Apr 2022
    Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022

    Bibliographical note

    © The Author(s) 2022. Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativeco applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.


    • Research
    • Energy expenditure
    • Obesity
    • Resting metabolic rate
    • Appetite
    • Ghrelin
    • Leptin
    • Insulin

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Medicine (miscellaneous)
    • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
    • Nutrition and Dietetics
    • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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