The association between lunch composition and obesity in Iranian adults

Zahra Akbarzade, Kurosh Djafarian, Nasim Saeidifard, Shabnam Aliakbari Majd, Nazila Garousi, Fatemeh Samadi, Hanieh Jebraeili, Maryam Chamari, Cain C T Clark, Sakineh Shab-Bidar

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    7 Citations (Scopus)
    42 Downloads (Pure)


    We aimed to assess the dietary composition of lunch meal using a posteriori derived dietary patterns and to determine the association of lunch composition with obesity in a sample of Iranian adults. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 850 men and women in Tehran (aged 20-59 y). Dietary intakes were assessed using three 24-h dietary recalls, and dietary patterns were identified via principal component factor analysis. For each identified pattern, scores were calculated for each participant and then classified into tertiles. Central obesity was defined WHO criteria. General obesity was defined as a body mass index of more than 30 kg/m2. Three major dietary patterns were identified at lunch meal using 12 food groups: "Bread, grains and fat", "Western", and "Potato and eggs". After adjustment for potential confounders, participants at the top tertile of the "Bread, grains and fat" dietary pattern had greater odds for a higher waist to hip ratio, compared with those in the lowest tertile (OR, 1.44; 95% CI: 1.01 to 2.07). However, we found no association between 'Western or '"potato and eggs" patterns and waist to hip ratio (OR 0.89, 95% CI: 0.62 to 1.28 and OR 1.16, 95% CI: 0.69 to 1.42, respectively). None of the identified dietary patterns was associated when defining obesity with waist circumference or body mass index. In conclusion, participants had a greater chance of central obesity defined based on waist to hip ratio following a lunchtime pattern with a higher and positive loading factor for "Bread, grains and fat".

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1517-1527
    Number of pages11
    JournalBritish Journal of Nutrition
    Issue number10
    Early online date8 Jul 2021
    Publication statusPublished - 28 May 2022


    Funding Information: This manuscript has been granted by Tehran University of Medical Sciences (Grant No: 40186).


    • Body mass index
    • Dietary patterns
    • Lunch pattern
    • Obesity
    • Waist circumference
    • waist-to-hip ratio

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Medicine (miscellaneous)
    • Nutrition and Dietetics


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