To analyze the evidence of validity and reliability of the Test of Gross Motor Development, Second Edition (TGMD-2) for low-income preschoolers; and to investigate the associations between the final model with sex, age, and body mass index (BMI). Methods: 368 preschoolers (3-5 years old [M = 4.80, SD = 0.48]; 176 boys) located in deprived areas were assessed for anthropometric measures and motor competence via the TGMD-2. A two-factor model (12 skills) was used and confirmatory indexes were calculated. The Bayesian criteria and the Composite Reliability were employed to evaluate alternative models. Relationships between the final model proposed with age, sex, and BMI were calculated using a network analysis (Mplus 8.0; Rstudio). Results: A two-factor model (locomotion and object control) with adequate values (>0.30) for the six skills (gallop, leap, slide, strike, throw, and roll) presented excellent indexes. Relationships between sex and throwing (r = -.22), and strike (r = -.21), indicated better performance for boys. Positive relationships were found for age with slide (r = 0.23) and hop (r = 0.28), and for BMI with throw (r = 0.18). Conclusion: Validity of a TGMD-2 short version for low-income preschoolers was present. The machine learning analysis to associate fundamental movement skills with gender, age, and BMI seems useful to optimize future interventions.
Bibliographical noteAccepted author manuscript version reprinted, by permission, from Journal of Motor Learning and Development, 2020, https://doi.org/10.1123/jmld.2019-0040 © Human Kinetics, Inc.
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- early childhood
- motor control
- motor development
- Early childhood
- Motor development
- Motor control
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
- Cognitive Neuroscience
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine