TGMD-2 short version: evidence of validity and associations with sex, age and BMI in preschool children

Paulo Bandeira, Michael Duncan, Maria Luiza Pessoa, Ivina Soares, Larissa da Silva, Jorge Mota, Clarice Martins

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To analyze the evidence of validity and reliability of the Test of Gross Motor Development, Second Edition (TGMD-2) for low-income preschoolers; and to investigate the associations between the final model with sex, age, and body mass index (BMI). Methods: 368 preschoolers (3-5 years old [M = 4.80, SD = 0.48]; 176 boys) located in deprived areas were assessed for anthropometric measures and motor competence via the TGMD-2. A two-factor model (12 skills) was used and confirmatory indexes were calculated. The Bayesian criteria and the Composite Reliability were employed to evaluate alternative models. Relationships between the final model proposed with age, sex, and BMI were calculated using a network analysis (Mplus 8.0; Rstudio). Results: A two-factor model (locomotion and object control) with adequate values (>0.30) for the six skills (gallop, leap, slide, strike, throw, and roll) presented excellent indexes. Relationships between sex and throwing (r = -.22), and strike (r = -.21), indicated better performance for boys. Positive relationships were found for age with slide (r = 0.23) and hop (r = 0.28), and for BMI with throw (r = 0.18). Conclusion: Validity of a TGMD-2 short version for low-income preschoolers was present. The machine learning analysis to associate fundamental movement skills with gender, age, and BMI seems useful to optimize future interventions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)528-543
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of Motor Learning and Development
Issue number3
Early online date28 Aug 2020
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2020

Bibliographical note

Accepted author manuscript version reprinted, by permission, from Journal of Motor Learning and Development, 2020, © Human Kinetics, Inc.

Copyright © and Moral Rights are retained by the author(s) and/ or other copyright owners. A copy can be downloaded for personal non-commercial research or study, without prior permission or charge. This item cannot be reproduced or quoted extensively from without first obtaining permission in writing from the copyright holder(s). The content must not be changed in any way or sold commercially in any format or medium without the formal permission of the copyright holders.


  • early childhood
  • motor control
  • motor development
  • Early childhood
  • Motor development
  • Motor control

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
  • Cognitive Neuroscience
  • Biophysics
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

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