Teachers on the Move: Evidence from a Large-Scale Learning Intervention during Lockdown

Kartika Bhatia, Margaret Leighton

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The move to remote learning during Covid-19 school closures left children who had no access to e-learning infrastructure without options to continue their education. In this paper we present evidence from a large-scale para-teacher intervention which brought learning resources to the homes of children cut-off by school closures. Over the 6.5 months of intervention, children enrolled in the intervention saw an average increase in test scores of 1.87 SD, with greater gains for those with lower baseline assessment scores. With these gains achieved at a cost of 5.48-7.39 USD per SD, the intervention was extremely cost effective.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)(In-Press)
Number of pages19
JournalJournal of Development Studies
Early online date24 Apr 2024
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 24 Apr 2024

Bibliographical note

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The terms on which this article has been published allow the posting of the Accepted Manuscript in a repository by the author(s) or with their consent.


  • primary education
  • Covid-19
  • lockdown
  • teachers
  • phygital learning


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