System modelling of an electric two-wheeled vehicle for energy management optimization study

Swapnil Sawant, Raja Mazuir Bin Raja Ahsan Shah, Mostafiz Rahman, Abd Rashid Abd Aziz, Steve Smith, Aidah Jumahat

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    12 Citations (Scopus)
    63 Downloads (Pure)


    This study investigated the performance behaviour and energy management control strategies of an electrified two-wheeled vehicle (E-TWV). The power and energy demands were calculated through a high-fidelity E-TWV model. A lithium-ion battery (LIB) pack was designed and characterized according to electric motor power requirements. Three transient duty cycles, modified assessment and reliability of transport emission models and inventory systems (ARTEMIS), federal test procedure (FTP)-75, and world harmonized test protocol (WLTP) class 2 were used to assess the energy management control strategies. The E-TWV model has managed to meet the power demand with less than 2% across the speed range. The electric motor architecture demonstrated an improvement in the performance acceleration of the vehicle (pass-by accelerations = 4.5 s) and the energy consumption in all transient duty cycles via control strategies implementation and regenerative braking (< 60 W·h/km). All results were also validated using three energy sources, namely coal, natural gas, and combined (CC) gas turbine to determine the well-to-wheel carbon dioxide (CO2) emission. The CC gas turbine produced 45 % less CO2 g/km compared to coal which indicated that the E-TWV can only be successful if the source of energy to charge the LIB is clean and sustainable.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)642-650
    Number of pages9
    Issue number3
    Publication statusPublished - Sept 2021


    • Driveability
    • Electrification
    • Energy management
    • Powertrain
    • System modelling

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
    • Ceramics and Composites
    • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
    • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law


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