Synthesis and Characterization of PVA/Starch Hydrogel Membranes Incorporating Essential Oils Aimed to be Used in Wound Dressing Applications

Farrukh Altaf, Muhammad Bilal Khan Niazi, Zaib Jahan, Tahir Ahmad, Muhammad Aftab Akram, Amna safdar, Muhammad Shoaib Butt, Tayyaba Noor, Farooq Sher

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    101 Citations (Scopus)
    425 Downloads (Pure)


    Abstract: Wound care has come through various trials and errors with primitive cultures applying old age techniques and knowledge. Recent research has shown that the moist environment promotes wound healing than the dry. In the present research, hydrogel membranes were fabricated by esterification of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) with starch and glutaraldehyde as a cross-linker. The essential oils (clove oil, Oregano oil and tea tree oil) have been incorporated in PVA/Starch based hydrogel membranes. The aim was to achieve optimized anti-bacterial activity and mechanical strength. The anti-bacterial testing was performed using the disc diffusion method. The maximum antibacterial activity for fabricated hydrogels was attained by addition of 0.1 mL clove oil in PVA/Starch hydrogel was 39 ± 0.57 mm and 37 ± 0.29 mm for MRSA and E. coli, respectively. The FTIR results presented the occurrence of –OH group in hydrogel membrane. The SEM results showed around dense nature of membranes with having an antibacterial agent in it or not. Mechanical examination of hydrogel membranes presented suitable tensile strength of 19.36 MPa for 0.1 mL Clove oil. Furthermore, water vapour transmission rate (WVTR) and moisture retention capability (MRC) for 0.1 mL clove oil was 36.22 g/m2h and 95.50%, respectively. The experimental conclusion nominated that fabricated hydrogel articulates good antibacterial, mechanical and physical properties that it could be used in wound dressing applications. The best results were obtained for clove oil using 0.1 mL as an antibacterial agent. Graphic Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)156-174
    Number of pages19
    JournalJournal of Polymers and the Environment
    Issue number1
    Early online date25 Aug 2020
    Publication statusPublished - Jan 2021


    • Antibacterial activity
    • Clove oil
    • Hydrogel
    • Oregano oil
    • Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)
    • Starch
    • Tea tree oil

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Environmental Engineering
    • Polymers and Plastics
    • Materials Chemistry


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