The breakdown of cardiac self-organization leads to heart diseases and failure, the number one cause of death worldwide. The left ventricular pressure–volume relation plays a key role in the diagnosis and treatment of heart diseases. Lumped-parameter models combined with pressure– volume loop analysis are very effective in simulating clinical scenarios with a view to treatment optimization and outcome prediction. Unfortunately, often invoked in this analysis is the traditional, time-varying elastance concept, in which the ratio of the ventricular pressure to its volume is prescribed by a periodic function of time, instead of being calculated consistently according to the change in feedback mechanisms (e.g., the lack or breakdown of self-organization) in heart diseases. Therefore, the application of the time-varying elastance for the analysis of left ventricular assist device (LVAD)–heart interactions has been questioned. We propose a paradigm shift from the time-varying elastance concept to a synergistic model of cardiac function by integrating the mechanical, electric, and chemical activity on microscale sarcomere and macroscale heart levels and investigating the effect of an axial rotary pump on a failing heart. We show that our synergistic model works better than the time-varying elastance model in reproducing LVAD–heart interactions with sufficient accuracy to describe the left ventricular pressure–volume relation.
Bibliographical noteThis is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- cardiac function
- lumped-parameter model
- left ventricular
- pressure–volume relation