Sustainable infrastructure development through use of calcined excavated waste clay as a supplementary cementitious material

Ding Zhou, Richard Wang, Mark Tyrer, Hong Wong, Christopher Cheeseman

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    78 Citations (Scopus)
    366 Downloads (Pure)


    Major infrastructure development projects in London produce large quantities of London clay and use significant volumes of concrete. Portland cement (CEM I) in concrete is normally partially replaced by supplementary cementitious materials such as ground granulated blastfurnace slag or pulverised fuel ash. The supply of supplementary cementitious materials is critical to the production of sustainable concrete. This study has investigated use of waste London clay as a supplementary cementitious material. The optimum calcined clay was produced at 900°C and concrete made with 30 wt.% of CEM I replaced by calcined clay had 28-day strengths greater than control samples. Compressive strengths of concrete containing calcined London clay were similar to concrete containing ground granulated blastfurnace slag and pulverised fuel ash. The production of calcined London clay emits 70 kg CO2/tonne and this is 91% lower than CEM I. 30 wt.% replacement of CEM I by calcined London clay therefore produces concrete with 27% lower embodied carbon. London clay can be calcined to form a technically viable supplementary cementitious material and use of this in concrete would enable major civil infrastructure projects to contribute to a circular economy.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1180-1192
    Number of pages13
    JournalJournal of Cleaner Production
    Early online date10 Sept 2017
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2017

    Bibliographical note

    NOTICE: this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Journal of Cleaner Production. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Journal of Cleaner Production, 168, (2017)
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.09.098

    © 2017, Elsevier. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International


    • Calcined clay
    • Cement
    • Concrete
    • Pozzolan
    • Supplementary cementitious materials

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
    • Environmental Science(all)
    • Strategy and Management
    • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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