Integrating graphene with plasmonic nanostructures results in multifunctional hybrid systems with enhanced performance for numerous applications. In this work, we take advantage of the remarkable mechanical properties of graphene to combine it with scalable three-dimensional (3D) plasmonic nanostructured silicon substrates, which enhance the interaction of graphene with electromagnetic radiation. Large areas of femtosecond laser-structured arrays of silicon nanopillars, decorated with gold nanoparticles, are integrated with graphene, which conforms to the substrate nanotopography. We obtain Raman spectra at 488, 514, 633, and 785 nm excitation wavelengths, spanning the entire visible range. For all excitation wavelengths, the Raman signal of graphene is enhanced by 2-3 orders of magnitude, similarly to the highest enhancements measured to date, concerning surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of graphene on plasmonic substrates. Moreover, in contrast to traditional deposition and lithographic methods, the fabrication method employed here relies on single-step, maskless, cost-effective, rapid laser processing of silicon in water, amenable to large-scale fabrication. Finite-difference time-domain simulations elucidate the advantages of the 3D topography of the substrate. Conformation of graphene to Au-decorated silicon nanopillars enables graphene to sample near fields from an increased number of nanoparticles. Due to synergistic effects with the nanopillars, different nanoparticles become more active for different wavelengths and locations on the pillars, providing broad-band enhancement. Nanostructured plasmonic silicon is a promising platform for integration with graphene and other 2D materials, for next-generation applications of large-area hybrid nanomaterials in the fields of sensing, photonics, optoelectronics, and medical diagnostics.
Bibliographical noteThis document is the Accepted Manuscript version of a Published Work that
appeared in final form in Journal of Physical Chemistry A, copyright © American
Chemical Society after peer review and technical editing by the publisher. To
access the final edited and published work see https://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpcc.8b10356
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ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Surfaces, Coatings and Films