Sugar and Cocoa: Sweet Synergy or Bitter Antagonisms: Formulating Cocoa and Chocolate Products for Health: A Narrative Review

Duane Mellor, Daniel Amund, Ekavi Georgousopoulou, Nenad Naumovski

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)
6 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

The potential health effects of cocoa flavanols are well described. Ranging from reducing risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease at population levels, moderating disease risk factors including endothelial function and lipid metabolism in clinical trials and mechanistic studies in laboratory studies highlighting target tissues and pathways. However, translating these benefits into public health messages is problematic, due to the high energy and sugar content of many cocoa products, including chocolate. This review considered the role of sugar in cocoa products, what are its physiological effects on bioavailability and bioactivity? Considering, then how cocoa products can be reformulated to reduce sugar intake, and the likely effects on beneficial effects of cocoa flavanols and consumer preferences. Ultimately, although interesting physiological effects are seen with cocoa flavanols, their use as a disease-modifying commodities may be limited the effect such products may have within an individual’s and populations overall dietary patterns.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)33-42
JournalInternational Journal of Food Science and Technology
Volume53
Issue number1
Early online date25 Oct 2017
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2018

Fingerprint

cocoa products
Cocoa
chocolate
flavanols
Sugars
Health
sugars
Lipid Metabolism
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Population
Biological Availability
Cardiovascular Diseases
Public Health
consumer preferences
Clinical Trials
energy content
eating habits
noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
products and commodities
lipid metabolism

Keywords

  • Polyphenols
  • Cocoa
  • Sugar
  • Bioavailability
  • Reformulation
  • Prebiotics

Cite this

Sugar and Cocoa: Sweet Synergy or Bitter Antagonisms : Formulating Cocoa and Chocolate Products for Health: A Narrative Review. / Mellor, Duane; Amund, Daniel; Georgousopoulou, Ekavi; Naumovski, Nenad.

In: International Journal of Food Science and Technology, Vol. 53, No. 1, 01.2018, p. 33-42.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{70af85d313bc4516926c693fcc673314,
title = "Sugar and Cocoa: Sweet Synergy or Bitter Antagonisms: Formulating Cocoa and Chocolate Products for Health: A Narrative Review",
abstract = "The potential health effects of cocoa flavanols are well described. Ranging from reducing risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease at population levels, moderating disease risk factors including endothelial function and lipid metabolism in clinical trials and mechanistic studies in laboratory studies highlighting target tissues and pathways. However, translating these benefits into public health messages is problematic, due to the high energy and sugar content of many cocoa products, including chocolate. This review considered the role of sugar in cocoa products, what are its physiological effects on bioavailability and bioactivity? Considering, then how cocoa products can be reformulated to reduce sugar intake, and the likely effects on beneficial effects of cocoa flavanols and consumer preferences. Ultimately, although interesting physiological effects are seen with cocoa flavanols, their use as a disease-modifying commodities may be limited the effect such products may have within an individual’s and populations overall dietary patterns.",
keywords = "Polyphenols, Cocoa, Sugar, Bioavailability, Reformulation, Prebiotics",
author = "Duane Mellor and Daniel Amund and Ekavi Georgousopoulou and Nenad Naumovski",
year = "2018",
month = "1",
doi = "10.1111/ijfs.13651",
language = "English",
volume = "53",
pages = "33--42",
journal = "International Journal of Food Science and Technology",
issn = "0950-5423",
publisher = "Wiley",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Sugar and Cocoa: Sweet Synergy or Bitter Antagonisms

T2 - Formulating Cocoa and Chocolate Products for Health: A Narrative Review

AU - Mellor, Duane

AU - Amund, Daniel

AU - Georgousopoulou, Ekavi

AU - Naumovski, Nenad

PY - 2018/1

Y1 - 2018/1

N2 - The potential health effects of cocoa flavanols are well described. Ranging from reducing risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease at population levels, moderating disease risk factors including endothelial function and lipid metabolism in clinical trials and mechanistic studies in laboratory studies highlighting target tissues and pathways. However, translating these benefits into public health messages is problematic, due to the high energy and sugar content of many cocoa products, including chocolate. This review considered the role of sugar in cocoa products, what are its physiological effects on bioavailability and bioactivity? Considering, then how cocoa products can be reformulated to reduce sugar intake, and the likely effects on beneficial effects of cocoa flavanols and consumer preferences. Ultimately, although interesting physiological effects are seen with cocoa flavanols, their use as a disease-modifying commodities may be limited the effect such products may have within an individual’s and populations overall dietary patterns.

AB - The potential health effects of cocoa flavanols are well described. Ranging from reducing risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease at population levels, moderating disease risk factors including endothelial function and lipid metabolism in clinical trials and mechanistic studies in laboratory studies highlighting target tissues and pathways. However, translating these benefits into public health messages is problematic, due to the high energy and sugar content of many cocoa products, including chocolate. This review considered the role of sugar in cocoa products, what are its physiological effects on bioavailability and bioactivity? Considering, then how cocoa products can be reformulated to reduce sugar intake, and the likely effects on beneficial effects of cocoa flavanols and consumer preferences. Ultimately, although interesting physiological effects are seen with cocoa flavanols, their use as a disease-modifying commodities may be limited the effect such products may have within an individual’s and populations overall dietary patterns.

KW - Polyphenols

KW - Cocoa

KW - Sugar

KW - Bioavailability

KW - Reformulation

KW - Prebiotics

U2 - 10.1111/ijfs.13651

DO - 10.1111/ijfs.13651

M3 - Article

VL - 53

SP - 33

EP - 42

JO - International Journal of Food Science and Technology

JF - International Journal of Food Science and Technology

SN - 0950-5423

IS - 1

ER -