The 2013 Madagascan elections were observed by international missions from across the globe, and recognised as relatively free from violence. The elections followed four years of political crisis, after a coup in 2009. Whereas this political crisis is estimated to have cost the Malagasy system 8 billion dollars, it is impossible to determine the cost of the latest elections. Electoral laws in Madagascar do not require the strict control of funds, nor impose limits on the funding of campaigns (EISA, 2010 IDEA, 2012). Funds on all sides were unaccounted for. They are suspected to have come from illicit activities, including large-scale illegal logging of rosewood, which has had huge socio-economic impact in the north of the country. Poverty levels in Madagascar have risen. According to World Bank figures, 92% live on less than 2$ per day and 59% are extremely poor, with even higher rates in rural areas. This paper explores how funding the electoral process, by seriously exploiting natural resources, may have contributed to the structural violence faced by the population in Madagascar, with severely degraded ecosystems, living conditions and significant increases in crime and poverty.
|Publication status||Published - 16 Jun 2015|
|Event||British International Studies Association Annual Conference - London, United Kingdom|
Duration: 16 Jun 2015 → 19 Jun 2015
|Conference||British International Studies Association Annual Conference|
|Period||16/06/15 → 19/06/15|