Strain imaging of corroded steel fasteners using neutron transmission imaging

Stratis Kanarachos, Ranggi S. Ramadhan, Winfried Kockelmann, Demetrios Venetsanos, Anton S. Tremsin, Michael E. Fitzpatrick

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
33 Downloads (Pure)


Failures in bolted structural connections have caused in the past the collapse of various steel structures exposed to weather conditions, including wind turbine towers, oil and gas platforms, and bridges. Corrosion and the resulting loss of preloaded tension in the bolted connection were the root cause of such catastrophic failures in many cases. However, it is still not fully understood how strain is re-distributed in corroded bolted connections, nor how different factors influence the redistribution. Measuring non-destructively the strain inside the assembly has been the main obstacle. To this end, in this paper, we employed energy-resolved neutron transmission imaging and we present strain maps in corroded bolted connections for the first time. We examined and compared the strain distribution measurements in corroded and non-corroded assemblies for different bolt-tightening techniques. The specimens under investigation were artificially corroded without introducing any additional mechanical loads. The resulting strain maps illustrate how strain is re-distributed and provide insight into the influence of the bolt-tightening method.

Original languageEnglish
Article number111904
Number of pages9
JournalMeasurement: Journal of the International Measurement Confederation
Early online date11 Sept 2022
Publication statusPublished - 15 Nov 2022

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The experiment was carried out at the ISIS Neutron and Muon Source of the UK Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) M. E. Fitzpatrick is grateful for funding from the Lloyd's Register Foundation


  • Bragg edge analysis
  • Corroded bolt connections
  • Neutron transmission imaging
  • Non-destructive testing
  • Strain distribution

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Instrumentation
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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