The suitability of stormwater harvested from pervious pavement system (PPS) structures for reuse purposes was investigated in conditions where glyphosate-containing herbicides (GCH) are applied as part of PPS maintenance procedure. The experiment was based on the four-layered design previously described as detailed in CIRIA C582. Results indicated that the highest sodium absorption ratio (SAR) of 1.6 recorded in this study, was less than that at which loss of permeability begins to occur as well as deterioration of matrix structure. Furthermore, the maximum electrical conductivity (ECw) of 2990 μS cm(-1), recorded for 7200 mg L(-1) concentration (GCH) was slightly below the unstable classification range at which salinity problems related to water quality occur such that salts accumulate in the root zone to the extent that crop yields are adversely affected. However, GCH concentration of 720 mg L(-1) was within 'permissible' range while that of 72 mg L(-1) was within 'excellent' range. Current study raises some environmental concerns owing to the overall impact that GCH at concentrations above 72 mg L(-1) exerts on the net performance of the organic decomposers, heavy metal and hydrocarbon release from the system and thus, should be further investigated. However, effluent from all the test models including those dosed with high GCH concentration of 7200 mg L(-1) do not pose any threat in terms of infiltration or deterioration associated with salinity although, there are indications that high dosage of the herbicide could lead to an elevated electrical conductivity of the recycled water. Graphical abstract Impact of herbicide on irrigation water quality.
The final publication is available at Springer via http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-016-6729-7
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- Environmental Monitoring
- Metals, Heavy
- Waste Water
- Water Pollutants, Chemical
- Water Quality
- Water Supply
- Journal Article