In a previous publication, the seismicity of Japan from 1 January 1984 to 11 March 2011 (the time of the M9 Tohoku earthquake occurrence) has been analyzed in a time domain called natural time χ. The order parameter of seismicity in this time domain is the variance of χ weighted for normalized energy of each earthquake. It was found that the fluctuations of the order parameter of seismicity exhibit 15 distinct minima—deeper than a certain threshold—1 to around 3 months before the occurrence of large earthquakes that occurred in Japan during 1984–2011. Six (out of 15) of these minima were followed by all the shallow earthquakes of magnitude 7.6 or larger during the whole period studied. Here, we show that the probability to achieve the latter result by chance is of the order of 10−5. This conclusion is strengthened by employing also the receiver operating characteristics technique.
Bibliographical noteThe final publication is available at Springer via http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00024-014-0930-8
- Natural time analysis
- receiver operating characteristics
- Monte Carlo calculation
- order parameter of seismicity