Statistical Analysis of the Consistency of HRV Analysis Using BCG or Pulse Wave Signals

Huiying Cui, Zhongyi Wang, Bin Yu, Fangfang Jiang, Ning Geng, Yongchun Li, Lisheng Xu, Dingchang Zheng, Biyong Zhang, Peilin Lu, Stephen E. Greenwald

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    Ballistocardiography (BCG) is considered a good alternative to HRV analysis with its non-contact and unobtrusive acquisition characteristics. However, consensus about its validity has not yet been established. In this study, 50 healthy subjects (26.2 ± 5.5 years old, 22 females, 28 males) were invited. Comprehensive statistical analysis, including Coefficients of Variation (CV), Lin’s Concordance Correlation Coefficient (LCCC), and Bland-Altman analysis (BA ratio), were utilized to analyze the consistency of BCG and ECG signals in HRV analysis. If the methods gave different answers, the worst case was taken as the result. Measures of consistency such as Mean, SDNN, LF gave good agreement (the absolute value of CV difference 2%, LCCC > 0.99, BA ratio 0.1) between J-J (BCG) and R-R intervals (ECG). pNN50 showed moderate agreement (the absolute value of CV difference 5%, LCCC > 0.95, BA ratio 0.2), while RMSSD, HF, LF/HF indicated poor agreement (the absolute value of CV difference ≥ 5% or LCCC ≤ 0.95 or BA ratio ≥ 0.2). Additionally, the R-R intervals were compared with P-P intervals extracted from the pulse wave (PW). Except for pNN50, which exhibited poor agreement in this comparison, the performances of the HRV indices estimated from the PW and the BCG signals were similar.
    Original languageEnglish
    Article number2423
    Number of pages21
    Issue number6
    Publication statusPublished - 21 Mar 2022

    Bibliographical note

    This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


    • heartrate variability
    • ballistocardiography
    • pulse wave
    • electrocardiography
    • hrv analysis


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