We consider the known phenomenon of torque oscillations and motion instabilities that occur in redundant robots during the execution of sufficiently long Cartesian trajectories when the joint torque is instantaneously minimized. In the framework of on-line local redundancy resolution methods, we propose basic variations of the minimum torque scheme to address this issue. Either the joint torque norm is minimized over two successive discrete-time samples using a short preview window, or we minimize the norm of the difference with respect to a desired momentum-damping joint torque, or the two schemes are combined together. The resulting local control methods are all formulated as well-posed linear-quadratic problems, and their closed-form solutions generate also low joint velocities while addressing the primary torque optimization objectives. Stable and consistent behaviors are obtained along short or long Cartesian position trajectories, as illustrated with simulations on a 3R planar arm and with experiments on a 7R KUKA LWR robot.
- motion control