Sourcing or Selling: The Value Flame at the Base of the Pyramid

Robert L. Williams Jr., Maktoba Omar, John Ensor

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


– Much has been written concerning the value and validity of the bottom of the pyramid (BOP) model, as a strategy for multi‐national corporation (MNC) growth. The model presented in this paper adds to the discussion of strategic possibilities to tap the potential of emerging markets. This paper seeks to address these issues.

– The paper first discusses trends in economic growth in emerging markets, global strategies, and the BOP market, then analyzes the blue ocean strategy (BOS) of value innovation.

– The paper develops the Value Flame at the Base of the Pyramid (VFBOP) model by combining BOP and BOS strategies to potentially offer opportunities for MNC market entry as well as market supply, to drive revenues and expand global market share.

Research limitations/implications
– As a concept, the model must be validated by empirical and case research to ascertain the shape and dynamics of the model. Future research can establish the parameters of the flame.

– It is believed that the VFBOP model is the first to address some of the limitations of BOP strategy while profiting from the BOS model, in order to fully benefit from sourcing and selling to emerging markets.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)233 – 246
Number of pages13
JournalMarketing Intelligence and Planning
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2011


  • Sourcing
  • Selling
  • Emergin Markets


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