Social Impact and Hard-To-Reach Groups

Andree Woodcock, Janet Saunders

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


This chapter discusses the importance of conducting social impact assessments (SIAs) prior to, during and after the implementation of mobility measures. All transport measures have a direct impact on transport users, but they can also have an indirect impact on users, non-users, and those living further away from the proposed measure. These consequences should be considered as part of the wider cost–benefit/lifecycle of the planned measures. A key aspect of design and implementation of mobility measures is to consider the direct and indirect effects on citizens, in particular vulnerable groups, those who have difficulty accessing transport through lack of finances, poor mobility, ageing or those with dependents/looking after children, or because their needs are not met through current transport provision and are consequently excluded from the opportunities provided by city life. The steps taken to mitigate these effects should feed into planning new transport measures, at all stages from pre-planning through to post-evaluation. This chapter explains the importance of SIA, discusses methodologies, provides a set of factors to be considered in conducting SIAs and provides an overview of groups most vulnerable to negative social impacts, with some suggestions for improving practise.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationCapacity Building in Local Authorities for Sustainable Transport Planning
EditorsAndree Woodcock, Janet Saunders, Keelan Fadden-Hopper, Eileen O'Connell
PublisherSpringer Nature
Number of pages21
ISBN (Electronic)978-981-19-6962-1
ISBN (Print)978-981-19-6961-4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2023

Publication series

NameSmart Innovation, Systems and Technologies
ISSN (Print)2190-3018
ISSN (Electronic)2190-3026

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
A comprehensive and worked example of conducting a Socio-Economic Impact Assessment was carried out for Delhi (2009) funded by Sida and ADB through the Sustainable Urban Mobility in Asia (SUMA) programme,3 [8]. This provides a detailed account of the steps that the transport consultants undertook couched within an intersectional framework. This provides transferable definitions and indicators.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023, Transport for West Midlands.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Decision Sciences(all)
  • Computer Science(all)


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