Size optimization and power allocation of a hybrid energy storage system for frequency service

Jianwei Li, Weitao Zou, Qingqing Yang, Fengyan Yi, Yunfei Bai, Zhongbao Wei, Hongwen He

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    12 Citations (Scopus)


    Aiming at the scenario where the energy storage system participates in the grid enhanced frequency response auxiliary service, this research initially constructs a frequency response model to provide power requirements for the energy storage system (ESS). A two-layer optimization approach is proposed to solve the size optimization problem. A mixed-integer linear programming technique is researched on the bottom layer to optimize the power allocation of the hybrid energy storage system (HESS). On the top layer, a size optimization framework is proposed for optimising the configuration of the energy storage system. The size optimization results show that compared with the battery energy storage system (BESS), the capacity of the HESS was reduced by 64%, the battery aging cost was reduced by 52%, and the total cost was reduced by 35%. The results also show that the proposed optimal HESS design could fully leverage the advantages of the battery and the supercapacitor (SC). In addition, the proposed method is investigated in a long-term frequency service case. With the optimal setup and adaptive power distribution approach, both energy storage units operate within the specified power and capacity range at the same time the battery is protected from high-frequency power fluctuations.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article number108165
    Number of pages13
    JournalInternational Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems
    Early online date29 Mar 2022
    Publication statusPublished - Oct 2022

    Bibliographical note

    Funding Information:
    This work was supported by the Nature Science Foundation of China with Grant No. 52172354 and Jianwei Li would like to thank the support of Youth talent promotion project from China Association for science and technology

    Publisher Copyright:
    © 2022 Elsevier Ltd


    • Adaptive power allocation
    • Enhanced frequency response
    • Hybrid energy storage system
    • Size optimization

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
    • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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