Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is a pathomechanical process by which the human hip can fail. The effect of attenuated cartilage on the kinematics and the pathological bone-to-bone contact of an osteoarthritic hip joint with FAI are still unknown. The current study is aiming to simulate osteoarthritis of a cam-type femoral head with cartilage thinning of varying severity. A three-dimensional model of the left hip joint of a male patient diagnosed with FAI was obtained from preoperative computerised tomography data using density segmentation techniques. The kinematics of FAI was simulated using a finite element method. As the acetabulum and femur came into contact, the penetrations were detected, and the contact constraints were applied according to the penalty constraint enforcement method. The translation and rotation parameters were defined in a single step for each one of three cases: healthy cartilage and 2 mm (one-sided thinning) and 4 mm (two-sided thinning) worn out articular cartilages. The results of the analysis show that thinning of the cartilage at the hip joint adversely affects impingement, as a range of motion decreased with progressive thinning of the articular cartilage. In the presence of attenuated cartilage, equating osteoarthritis, the pathomorphology of the cam lesion, likely determines the extent of damage on the rim of the acetabulum, as well.
- Hip impingement
- Thinning of the articular cartilage
- Kinematic analysis
- Pathomorphology of bone-to-bone contact
- Finite element modelling