The design of optimized charging strategies based on electrochemical models is essential for the broader use of electric vehicles. Lithium plating on the anode surface is strongly linked to charging lifetime and safety of batteries; thus, it cannot be ignored in the design of charging strategies. The use of electrochemical models in combination with the lithium plating criterion allows the identification of the maximum charging current that prevents lithium plating, a key prerequisite for the accurate identification of model parameters. However, most current studies have not yet considered the influence of electrochemical parameters on the characterizing variables for the lithium plating criterion. To improve the simulation accuracy of the electrochemical model for the lithium plating reaction, we have not only carried out a parameter sensitivity analysis using the cell terminal voltage as the target, but also have selected the anode potential and the anode surface lithium-ion concentration as sensitivity analysis targets, enabling the comprehensive evaluation of crucial characterizing variables for lithium plating criterion. The sensitivity of electrochemical parameters on three model outputs was investigated, not only at 25 °C but also at 5 °C and 40 °C. The results show that the parameters sensitive to the terminal voltage are mainly cathode-related; while the parameters sensitive to the characterizing variables for lithium plating criterion are mostly anode-related. The temperature has a significant effect on the parameter sensitivity, with low temperatures having a larger effect. Finally, positive and negative correlations between the sensitivity parameters and the anode potential were analyzed, providing crucial support for the determination of parameter values.
FunderThis work is supported by the “ National Key R&D Program of China ” (Grant no. 2021YFB2501900 ) and the Joint Fund of Ministry of Education of China for Equipment Pre-research (Grant no. 8091B022130 ).
- Electrochemical model
- Lithium plating
- Lithium-ion battery
- Sensitivity analysis
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
- Energy Engineering and Power Technology
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering