Aqueous rechargeable Zn/MnO 2 batteries are attractive due to their low-cost, high safety and use of non-toxic materials. In term of electrolyte materials, it is anticipated that an aqueous electrolyte with a wider electrochemical window will improve the stability and energy density. In this work, we investigated salt-concentrated electrolytes based on relatively inexpensive acetate salts. An electrochemical window of 3.4 V was achieved in salt-concentrated 1 m Zn(OAc) 2+31 m KOAc electrolyte. Its total ionic conductivity is 2.96 × 10 -2 S cm -1 while the ionic conductivity of Zn 2+ ions is 7.80 × 10 -3 S cm -1, estimated by a current interrupt method. This electrolyte is regarded as a mild alkaline environment with a pH value of 9.76, causing the different storage mechanism for anode with Zn 2+ ions and, cathode with OH - ions as the charge carriers respectively. A Zn/MnO 2 battery was assembled using 1 m Zn(OAc) 2+31 m KOAc electrolyte, self-supported α-MnO 2-TiN/TiO 2 cathode and Zn foil anode. The Zn/MnO 2 battery can be charged to 2.0 V versus Zn/Zn 2+ and delivers discharge capacity and energy density of 304.6 mAh·g -1 (calculated on the mass of MnO 2) or 0.32 mAh·cm -2 (calculated on the area of electrode) and, 368.5 Wh·kg -1 (calculated on the mass of MnO 2) or 232.7 Wh·kg -1 (calculated on the total active mass of electrodes and electrolyte) in the first cycle under a current density of 100 mA·g -1 (~ C/3, based on the mass of MnO 2) or 0.1 mA·cm -2 (based on the area of electrode). During cycling, the coulombic efficiency can be maintained around 99% and reached 99.9% during the 14-340th cycles. After the cycling tests, almost no dendrites were observed on the Zn foil anode attributing to the super-high salt concentration in that acetate-based electrolyte, which will benefit the stability of aqueous Zn/MnO 2 batteries.
- Aqueous rechargeable battery
- Salt-concentrated electrolytes
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Energy Engineering and Power Technology
- Materials Science(all)
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment