Risk-Rating GHG Emissions Offsets Based on Climate Requirements

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


To stabilize global warming within the 1.5–2.0 °C Paris Agreement goal, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions need to reach net-zero. Offsetting is required for net-zero emissions. Offset schemes differ widely in their capacity to mitigate anthropogenic global warming (AGW). Our previous chapter provides offsetting guidelines to strengthen their long-term climate benefit, and this chapter further develops this topic.
We propose a framework for rating different offset types based on their climate risk, moving beyond the usual criteria of verification, audit, and additionality. We apply our offset climate ratings to some offsetting types and case studies including the sorts of schemes proposed by major oil companies and the PAS 2060 carbon-neutrality standard. The proposed framework grades offsets from most to least beneficial. Ultimately, stabilizing global warming requires the highest-rated offsets under the proposed framework.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationBusiness and Policy Solutions to Climate Change
EditorsThomas Walker, Stefan Wendt, Sherif Goubran, Tyler Schwartz
PublisherPalgrave Macmillan
Number of pages23
ISBN (Electronic)978-3-030-86803-1
ISBN (Print)978-3-030-86802-4
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 1 Jan 2022
Externally publishedYes

Publication series

NamePalgrave Studies in Sustainable Business in Association with Future Earth
ISSN (Print)2662-1320
ISSN (Electronic)2662-1339

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.


  • Net-zero
  • Offset
  • Climate risk
  • GHG emissions
  • Global warming

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Economics, Econometrics and Finance(all)


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