This study investigates empirically an extended version of the Environmental Kuznets Curve model that controls for tourism development. We find that international tourist arrivals into Turkey alongside income, squared income and energy consumption, cointegrate with CO2 emissions. Tourist arrivals, growth, and energy consumption exert a positive and significant impact on CO2 emissions in the long-run. Our results provide empirical support to EKC hypothesis showing that at exponential levels of growth, CO2 emissions decline. The findings suggest that despite the environmental degradation stemming from tourism development, policies aimed at environmental protection should not be pursued at the expense of tourism-led growth.
Bibliographical noteDue to the publisher's policy, the full text of this item is not available from the repository until 18 June 2016.
The final publication is available at Springer via http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-015-4861-4 .
- Tourism development
- CO2 emissions
- Environmental Kuznets curve