Resilient Manufacturing: Use of Augmented Reality to Advance Training and Operating Practices in Manual Assembly

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This paper outlines the results of an experimental research on deploying an emerging augmented reality (AR) system for real-time task assistance (or work instructions) of highly customised and high-risk manual operations. The focus is on human operators’ training effectiveness and performance and the aim is to test if such technologies can support enhancing the knowledge retention levels and accuracy of task execution to improve health and safety (H&S). An AR enhanced assembly method is proposed and experimentally tested using a real industrial process as case study for electric vehicles’ (EV) battery module assembly. The experimental results revealed that the proposed method improved the training practices and performance through increases in the knowledge retention levels from 40% to 84%, and accuracy of task execution from 20% to 71%, when compared to the traditional paper-based method. The results of this research validate and demonstrate how emerging technologies are advancing the choice for manual, hybrid or fully automated processes by promoting the XR-assisted processes, and the connected worker (a vision for Industry 4 and 5.0), and supporting manufacturing become more resilient in times of constant market changes.
Original languageEnglish
Article number3922
Pages (from-to)321- 326
Number of pages6
JournalInternational Journal of Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2022

Bibliographical note

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution License (,
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium,
provided the original work is properly cited


  • Augmented Reality
  • Extended reality
  • Connected worker
  • XR-assisted operator
  • Manual assembly 4.0
  • Smart training
  • Industry 5.0
  • Battery assembly

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering
  • Automotive Engineering


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