Reducing risk in foreign market entry strategies: Standardization versus modification

Maktoba Omar, Marc Porter

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Citations (Scopus)


– The purpose of this paper is to investigate empirically the influence of six key contextual determinants upon the degree of standardization for firms who enter a new market directly. In the context of international business market entry, much research emphasis has been placed upon the issues of standardization versus modification. Generally, however, this research focuses on promotion and advertising.

– This paper investigates the research variables that influence standardization/modification decisions in a framework comprising “firm or company context” and “host country context”. The research, undertaken with a sample of 700 UK‐based for‐profit organizations, adapts and further develops Hofstede's study.

– It identifies that the elements of competition and political risk are negatively significant in relation to the degree of standardization. In addition, economic development and international experience are positively significant in relation to the degree of standardization. Firm size and culture differences have no impact upon the degree of standardization.

Research limitations/implications
– Research is only conducted among British companies operating cross border.

– This paper's originality is in providing specific types of elements as risk reducers in a firm's market entry strategy.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)382-396
Number of pages15
JournalCompetitiveness Review: An International Business Journal
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2011



  • International business
  • Standardization
  • Modification
  • Market entry strategy
  • Hofstede
  • Reducing risk

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