Reducing CO2 footprint through synergies in carbon free energy vectors and low carbon fuels

Wentao Wang, Jose Martin Herreros, A. Tsolakis, A. P. E. York

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    10 Citations (Scopus)
    68 Downloads (Pure)


    Carbon-footprint from transport and power generation can significantly be improved when carbon free or reduced carbon energy carries are utilised that are compatible with the current technology of the internal combustion (IC) engines. The current study focuses on the reduction of diesel engine CO2 emissions by improving ammonia and hydrogen combustion through the incorporation of alternative fuel, diethyl glycol diethyl ether (DGE) as an oxygenated fuel blend and combustion enhancer. The aim of the work is to study the potential synergies between DGE and two carbon free energy vectors H2 and NH3 in reducing the environmental effects and contribute in decarbonising internal combustion engines. DGE's ignition properties (i.e. high cetane number) improved the H2 and NH3 combustion efficiencies via counteracting their high auto-ignition resistances, and also contributing in lowering the unburnt H2 and NH3 emissions to the atmosphere. This led in the reduction of CO2 by up 50% when 60–70% of diesel fuel is replaced with DGE, H2 and NH3. Synergetic effects were also found between DGE and the gaseous fuels (i.e. hydrogen and ammonia) simultaneously decreasing the levels of PM, NOx, HC and CO emitted to the atmosphere; thus mitigating the health and environmental hazards associated to diesel engines.
    NOTICE: this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Energy. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Energy VOL 112, (2016) DOI: 10.1016/

    © 2016, Elsevier. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)976-983
    Early online date5 Aug 2016
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2016


    • DGE
    • Hydrogen
    • Ammonia
    • Pollutants
    • Emission control


    Dive into the research topics of 'Reducing CO2 footprint through synergies in carbon free energy vectors and low carbon fuels'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

    Cite this