Quantitative Characterization of Inclusions in Continuously Cast High-Carbon Steel

Masoumeh Faraji, D.P. Wilcox, R. Thackray, A.A. Howe, I. Todd, P. Tsakiropoulos

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    13 Citations (Scopus)


    Existing standards for the characterization of the size, morphology, chemistry, and distribution of inclusions in steels using different techniques are briefly reviewed in this work. Strengths and shortfalls of different methods are discussed, and a combination of different criteria is used to quantitatively characterize the inclusions in a continuously cast high-carbon steel. It is shown that the main elements in the inclusions for the studied steel were Mn, S, Ti, Al, and oxygen and that alongside MnS and some Al2O3 inclusions many non-metallic inclusions appeared in complex forms, consisting of silicates, sulfides, and different types of oxides. Duplex inclusions, mainly cores of Al2O3, or SiO2 surrounded by MnS were the most common complex multiphase inclusions in this steel. An industrial approach was used to classify the inclusions into thirteen different oxide types. Based upon this approach, data are presented according to the chemistry of inclusions using diagrams featuring different quantitative parameters. Furthermore, it is shown that the number of oxides per unit area and the size of oxides, respectively, decreased and increased with increasing distance from the surface of the bloom which had solidified at the highest cooling rate.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)2490-2502
    Number of pages13
    JournalMetallurgical and Materials Transactions B
    Issue number6
    Early online date16 Sept 2015
    Publication statusPublished - Dec 2015


    • Non-metallic inclusions
    • High Carbon steels
    • Quantitative Characterization


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