Psychometric evaluation of the hope, agency and opportunity (HAO): a brief measure of mental health recovery

Sheena Au-Yeung, Katherine Newman-Taylor, Christie Garner, Elizabeth Vernon-Wilson, Lesley Herbert, Karlien H. W. Paas

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


Background: The development of safe and effective mental health services is a priority. This requires valid measures of personal recovery, yet these tools are not embedded in routine clinical practice. Brief “patient reported measures” are most likely to be acceptable to service-users and clinicians. The 4-item “Hope, Agency and Opportunity” (HAO) was co-produced to assess recovery outcomes and experience of mental health services.

Aim: To evaluate the psychometric properties of the HAO.

Method: A clinical sample from secondary healthcare services and a non-clinical sample were assessed at baseline and two weeks, on measures of personal recovery.

Results: Factor analysis indicated goodness of fit for the HAO with both clinical and non-clinical samples. The measure demonstrated acceptable internal consistency, moderate to strong construct validity and substantial test-retest reliability over two weeks.

Conclusions: The HAO demonstrates satisfactory psychometric properties. Co-production of the measure confers clinical credibility. The brevity of the tool means it can be incorporated into routine clinical practice to drive improvements in service quality.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)562-568
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Mental Health
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 6 Oct 2017
Externally publishedYes


  • Patient reported measures
  • outcome evaluation
  • PROMs
  • PREMs
  • psychometric evaluation
  • recovery
  • questionnaire validation


Dive into the research topics of 'Psychometric evaluation of the hope, agency and opportunity (HAO): a brief measure of mental health recovery'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this