Protective Security at Sea: A Counter Terrorism Framework for Cruise and Passenger Ships

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2 Citations (Scopus)
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In the present context of global terrorism, managing protective security in cruise and passenger ships is a challenge for organisations. This is due, in part, to the distinct lack of a counter terrorism framework for the industry. To address this gap, this paper develops a counter terrorism framework for cruise and passenger ships. This framework identifies protective security components and terrorist threats based on known attacks. It provides stakeholders with a means to assess risk, both in terms of likelihood and wider organisational impact. From an operational security perspective, the contribution of the framework is three-fold: First, it offers a consistent approach to delivering an effective protective security posture at all stages of a ship's itinerary. Second, it is envisaged that the application of the framework will improve security decision-making within organisations. Third, improved organisational security may, over time, enhance deterrence.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)345-363
Number of pages19
JournalWMU Journal of Maritime Affairs
Issue number3
Early online date3 Jan 2023
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2023

Bibliographical note

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This document is the author’s post-print version, incorporating any revisions agreed during the peer-review process. Some differences between the published version and this version may remain and you are advised to consult the published version if you wish to cite from it.


This research was supported by the NATO Maritime Interdiction Operational Training Centre (NMIOTC).


  • Protective security
  • Counter-terrorism
  • Maritime
  • Decision-making
  • Security governance

Institute themes

  • Security and Resilience


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