Protective Security at Sea: A Counter Terrorism Framework for Cruise and Passenger Ships

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In the present context of global terrorism, managing protective security in cruise and passenger ships is a challenge for organisations. This is due, in part, to the distinct lack of a counter terrorism framework for the industry. To address this gap, this paper develops a counter terrorism framework for cruise and passenger ships. This framework identifies protective security components and terrorist threats based on known attacks. It provides stakeholders with a means to assess risk, both in terms of likelihood and wider organisational impact. From an operational security perspective, the contribution of the framework is three-fold: First, it offers a consistent approach to delivering an effective protective security posture at all stages of a ship's itinerary. Second, it is envisaged that the application of the framework will improve security decision-making within organisations. Third, improved organisational security may, over time, enhance deterrence.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)(In-Press)
JournalWMU Journal of Maritime Affairs
Early online date3 Jan 2023
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 3 Jan 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was supported by the NATO Maritime Interdiction Operational Training Centre (NMIOTC).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022, World Maritime University.


  • Protective security
  • Counter-terrorism
  • Maritime
  • Decision-making
  • Security governance


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