Properties of alluvial soils of taiga forest under anthropogenic salinisation

Elena Khayrulina, Anna Bogush, Larisa Novoselova, Natalya Mitrakova

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    Abstract

    The environmental impact of deposit development can be indirect and can cause combined geochemical processes in ecosystems. These must be taken into consideration under environmental forecasting and environmental risk assessment. Soil degradation in the Taiga Forest is considered, within the area of Verkhnekamskoye potash deposit (Russia), as an example of such environmental transformation. Here, the mechanism and characteristics of the anthropogenic salinisation of alluvial soils under potash deposit development are newly described. It was found that there is a strong anthropogenic impact of the potash industry on valley soils where the contaminated NaCl groundwater discharges or is close to the surface. The valley soils are characterised by high salinity, and the sum of toxic salts in soils has reached 26%. Alluvial gley humic clay chloride saline soil (Gleyic Fluvisols (Salic, Loamic, Technic)) and secondary solonchak on alluvial humic clay soil sulfate-chloride gypsum-containing surface-gleyed (Chloridic Gleyic Fluvic Solonchak (Hypersalic, Loamic, Technic)) were formed in hydromorphic conditions. Morphological, physicochemical and mineralogical analyses were carried out. Under hydromorphic conditions, Chloridic Gleyic Fluvic Solonchak (Hypersalic, Loamic) was described to show a hydrotroillite layer and reddish-yellow iron-rich precipitates on its surface. The top soil horizon has the highest content of iron minerals (up to 84.9%) and Fe-bearing plant residues (up to 20%). Additionally, the spongy and gel-like organic materials, as well as the siliceous remains of diatoms, are enriched in Ca, Fe, Cl, K, Na, S and P. The lower soil horizon consists of black gel-like phases and hydrogen sulphide settings with a high content of plant residues. The insoluble part of the samples contains up to 84% hydrogoethite. The sources of iron in soils and bottom sediments include the iron-enriched Sheshma sediments speckled rocks, slurry material, halite wastes and soil minerals of alluvial gley soils.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article number321
    JournalForests
    Volume12
    Issue number3
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 10 Mar 2021

    Bibliographical note

    Funding Information:
    Funding: This work was supported by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Russian Federation (№ 2019-0858) and The program of activities of the world-class research and education center “Rational Subsoil Use” for 2019–2024 with the financial support of the Science and Higher Education of the Russian Federation (order of the Government of the Russian Federation of 30 ?pril 2019 №. 537).

    Publisher Copyright:
    © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

    Copyright:
    Copyright 2021 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.

    Keywords

    • Fe-bearing minerals
    • Ion exchange processes
    • Leaching
    • Potash mining
    • Soil salinity
    • Sulfidisation process

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Forestry

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