Process–Structure–Formulation Interactions for enhanced sodium Ion Battery Development: A Review

M. Anne Sawhney, Malik Wahid, Santanu Muhkerjee, Rebecca Griffin, Alexander Roberts, Satishchandra Ogale, Jenny Baker

    Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

    1 Citation (Scopus)
    15 Downloads (Pure)


    Before the viability of a cell formulation can be assessed for implementation in commercial sodium ion batteries, processes applied in cell production should be validated and optimized. This review summarizes the steps performed in constructing sodium ion (Na-ion) cells at research scale, highlighting parameters and techniques that are likely to impact measured cycling performance. Consistent process–structure–performance links have been established for typical lithium-ion (Li-ion) cells, which can guide hypotheses to test in Na-ion cells. Liquid electrolyte viscosity, sequence of mixing electrode slurries, rate of drying electrodes and cycling characteristics of formation were found critical to the reported capacity of laboratory cells. Based on the observed importance of processing to battery performance outcomes, the current focus on novel materials in Na-ion research should be balanced with deeper investigation into mechanistic changes of cell components during and after production, to better inform future designs of these promising batteries.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article numbere202100860
    Pages (from-to)(In Press)
    Number of pages20
    Issue number5
    Early online date15 Jan 2022
    Publication statusPublished - 4 Mar 2022

    Bibliographical note

    © 2022 The Authors. ChemPhysChem published by Wiley-VCH GmbH

    This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


    Funding for this work was provided by Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) through Materials Research Hub for Energy Conversion, Capture, and Storage (M‐RHEX) (EP/R023581/1); ECR Fellowship NoRESt (EP/S03711X/1), SPECIFIC Innovation and Knowledge Centre (EP/N020863/1 and EP/P030831/1), the UKRI Global Challenge Research Fund project, SUNRISE (EP/P032591/1). Further funding was from the Department of Science and Technology (DST) India Grant (DST/INSPIRE/04/2017/002798) and the European Social Fund via the Welsh Government (c80816), the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (Grant Ref: EP/S02252X/1)


    • cell processing
    • electrochemistry
    • electrolyte casting
    • Na-ion; slurry mixing

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
    • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry


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