Before the viability of a cell formulation can be assessed for implementation in commercial sodium ion batteries, processes applied in cell production should be validated and optimized. This review summarizes the steps performed in constructing sodium ion (Na-ion) cells at research scale, highlighting parameters and techniques that are likely to impact measured cycling performance. Consistent process–structure–performance links have been established for typical lithium-ion (Li-ion) cells, which can guide hypotheses to test in Na-ion cells. Liquid electrolyte viscosity, sequence of mixing electrode slurries, rate of drying electrodes and cycling characteristics of formation were found critical to the reported capacity of laboratory cells. Based on the observed importance of processing to battery performance outcomes, the current focus on novel materials in Na-ion research should be balanced with deeper investigation into mechanistic changes of cell components during and after production, to better inform future designs of these promising batteries.
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Funding for this work was provided by Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) through Materials Research Hub for Energy Conversion, Capture, and Storage (M‐RHEX) (EP/R023581/1); ECR Fellowship NoRESt (EP/S03711X/1), SPECIFIC Innovation and Knowledge Centre (EP/N020863/1 and EP/P030831/1), the UKRI Global Challenge Research Fund project, SUNRISE (EP/P032591/1). Further funding was from the Department of Science and Technology (DST) India Grant (DST/INSPIRE/04/2017/002798) and the European Social Fund via the Welsh Government (c80816), the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (Grant Ref: EP/S02252X/1)
- cell processing
- electrolyte casting
- Na-ion; slurry mixing
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry