Prediction of the Impact of Nozzle Geometry on Spray Characteristics

Mahmoud Abd El Aziz Mohamed, Hesham El Sayed Abdel Hameed, Ramy Elsayed Shaltout, Hafez Abdel Aal El-Salmawy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


In the present paper, the formation and development of cavitation inside the nozzle of an atomizer with different geometrical characteristics have been studied numerically. Different shapes of inlet nozzles and different nozzle-length-to-diameter ratios have been investigated. The developed model has been built as a three-dimensional (3D) one, where the turbulence is modeled considering large eddy simulation. The obtained computational results showed good agreement with the reported experimental results. It has been found that the occurrence of cavitation depends on the amount of energy needed to overcome the viscosity and friction between the liquid layers. The mass flowing through the nozzle decreases with increasing cavitation. The intensity of cavitation depends on the nozzle entrance shape. Sharp edges cause cavitation to occur early in the nozzle, followed by an inclined shape, and then the curved entrance. The dissipative energy in the cavitation and bubble collapse result in an increase in the turbulent kinetic energy of the issuing liquid. This causes more liquid disintegration, leading to larger spray volume and smaller droplet size. The obtained results for spray droplet size distribution have been compared with experimental data developed by other researchers, and a good agreement has also been found.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6218-6230
Number of pages13
JournalACS Omega
Issue number9
Early online date22 Feb 2021
Publication statusPublished - 9 Mar 2021
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 The Authors. Published by American Chemical Society.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Chemical Engineering(all)


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