Power to the Teachers: An Exploratory Review on Artificial Intelligence in Education

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    This exploratory review attempted to gather evidence from the literature by shedding light on the emerging phenomenon of conceptualising the impact of artificial intelligence in education. The review utilised the PRISMA framework to review the analysis and synthesis process encompassing the search, screening, coding, and data analysis strategy of 141 items included in the corpus. Key findings extracted from the review incorporate a taxonomy of artificial intelligence applications with associated teaching and learning practice and a framework for helping teachers to develop and self-reflect on the skills and capabilities envisioned for employing artificial intelligence in education. Implications for ethical use and a set of propositions for enacting teaching and learning using artificial intelligence are demarcated. The findings of this review contribute to developing a better understanding of how artificial intelligence may enhance teachers’ roles as catalysts in designing, visualising, and orchestrating AI-enabled teaching and learning, and this will, in turn, help to proliferate AI-systems that render computational representations based on meaningful data-driven inferences of the pedagogy, domain, and learner models.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article number14
    Number of pages38
    JournalInformation (Switzerland)
    Issue number1
    Publication statusPublished - 29 Dec 2021

    Bibliographical note

    Copyright: © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
    This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and
    conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://


    British Academy with grant number SRG1920/100529.


    • Artificial intelligence in education
    • Teachers
    • AIED tools and applications
    • AIED skills and competencies
    • AIED ethics

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Information Systems


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