Position And Rotation of Driver's Head as Risk Factor for Whiplash in Rear Impacts

Karthik Ekambaram, James Lenard, Andrew Morris

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


    Evidence suggests that head position increases risk of whiplash injury to vehicle occupants in rear impacts. The
    aims of this study were to collect exposure data on head position and rotation during naturalistic driving and to
    express this in the form of a parametric statistical model for use in computer simulations to optimize seat design for
    neck injury prevention. An instrumented vehicle equipped with an eye-tracker was used to collect digital readings
    that were complemented with a four-track video recording. Data from driving trials (approximately 30-60 minutes)
    were analyzed when the vehicle was stopped, stopping or moving slowly as these are thought to be manoeuvres
    where impact and hence neck injury risk is highest. It was found that the ‘t location-scale’ distribution provided best
    fit to the experimental data and that the measured interquartile range or central 50% of head movement in such
    manoeuvres was approximately ± 15 mm lateral, ± 10 mm longitudinal and ± 7.5 degrees left-right rotation. These
    ranges provide guidance on the degree of biofidelity required in computer simulation models. Further analysis
    showed that out-of-range head rotation and rapid rotation explained the majority of missing digital readings and
    these two motions should therefore be modeled separately as elements of the parametric model.
    Original languageEnglish
    Article number012
    Number of pages6
    JournalJournal of Ergonomics
    Publication statusPublished - 2015


    • Head position and rotation
    • Risk factor
    • Whiplash
    • Softtissue neck injury
    • Rear impact
    • Naturalistic driving
    • Seat design


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