PLL-based Enhanced Control of Boost PFC Converter for Smart Farming Lighting Application

Miao Lin Pay, Jesper Christensen, Fei He, Laura Roden, Hafiz Ahmed, Mathias Foo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
7 Downloads (Pure)


Controlled environment farming has become an attractive solution to increase the food production with limited use of resources. LED lights are often used in this type of farming to increase plant yield. LED lights are dc load, whereas the grid provides ac power. This necessitates the use of power factor correction (PFC) converter as an interface between the grid and the lights. This paper proposes an innovative control method for the boost PFC converter, where an advanced phase-locked loop scheme is developed that can eliminate measurement dc offset and provide harmonic robust estimation of the grid voltage fundamental component. The applied nonlinear control uses the existing two-loop control architecture. Based on a baseline PI controller, a nonlinear function is added to make the controller react faster when it is far from the reference and vice-versa. Comprehensive simulation studies are conducted to assess the performance of the proposed method under various challenging test scenarios. Compared to the baseline method, the proposed technique achieved 42%∼65% reduction in total harmonic distortion depending on the test cases, which makes the technique a suitable candidate for improving the operational efficiency and, consequently, the running cost of a smart farming lighting system on an industrial scale. Results show the effectiveness of the proposed method over the conventional counterpart.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100502
Number of pages11
JournalRenewable Energy Focus
Early online date13 Oct 2023
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2023

Bibliographical note

© 2023 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (


This work was supported by Coventry University Global Challenge Research Fund (GCRF), Fully Funded Doctoral Studentship Scheme to M.L.P. H.A. acknowledges the support by Ser Cymru II 80761-BU-103 project by Welsh European Funding Office (WEFO) under the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF).


  • Boost power factor correction
  • feedback control
  • nonlinear proportional-integral
  • phase-locked loop
  • power quality
  • smart farming

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment


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