Pilot competencies as components of a dynamic human‐machine system

Heikki Petteri Mansikka, Donald Harris, Kai Virtanen

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    8 Citations (Scopus)
    291 Downloads (Pure)


    This paper formulates a theoretical model of flight deck team performance as a dynamic human‐machine system, later referred to as CRM‐DYMO (Crew Resources Management‐DYnamic MOdel). The model identifies human and machine subsystems. The human subsystem describes the activities taken by the flight crew and the machine subsystem describes the changes in the aircraft's state. The human subsystem's output forms an input for the machine subsystem, and the machine subsystem's output feeds back to the human system creating a closed loop system. Pilots’ performance are described as competencies, which form part of the elements in the human subsystem. This paper concentrates only on CRM competencies as defined by the International Civil Aviation Authority and the International Air Transport Association. In addition to the detailed conceptual model of the human subsystem and associated competencies, the approach is illustrated with reference to two accident case studies. These demonstrate how CRM‐DYMO can assist in analyzing CRM and help in identifying how the different system components interact. Although the case studies demonstrate the benefits of CRM‐DYMO, they merely serve as a starting point to understand how CRM works and will hopefully encourage supporting quantitative simulation modeling and empirical studies.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)466-477
    Number of pages12
    JournalHuman Factors and Ergonomics in Manufacturing and Service Industries
    Issue number6
    Early online date11 Aug 2019
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2019

    Bibliographical note

    This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Mansikka, HP, Harris, D & Virtanen, K 2019, 'Pilot competencies as components of a dynamic human‐machine system', Human Factors and Ergonomics in Manufacturing and Service Industries, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 466-477, which has been published in final form at https://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hfm.20809

    This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Self-Archiving.


    • crew resource management
    • dynamic human-machine system
    • modeling
    • pilot competencies
    • team performance

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Human Factors and Ergonomics
    • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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