Peak and end effects on remembered enjoyment of eating in low and high restrained eaters

Eric Robinson, Jackie Blissett, Suzanne Higgs

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    25 Citations (Scopus)


    Memory is likely to be important in food choice because many food likes and dislikes are learnt. Evidence suggests that the final few moments of an experience ('end effect') and the most intense moments of an experience ('peak effect') have a disproportionately large influence on hedonic memories. In Study 1 we examined whether the end effect bias is applicable to remembered enjoyment of a food and whether this holds true for restrained and unrestrained eaters. One hundred and four participants ate the same yoghurt but half the participants experienced a pleasant end and half a bland end (control condition). Although both the 'pleasant ending' and control group had a similar online enjoyment of the yoghurt, unrestrained eaters who experienced a pleasant end remembered it to have been significantly more enjoyable than those in the control condition. No end effect was observed for restrained eaters. In Study 2 we examined predictors of remembered enjoyment of a multi-item meal. Forty-six participants consumed and rated 5 buffet style food items as part of a lunch time meal. For unrestrained eaters, remembered enjoyment of the meal was only predicted by 'peak' online enjoyment of the most liked item. Participant's enjoyment of the first, last and least liked items did not predict remembered enjoyment. For restrained eaters, remembered enjoyment was not predicted by any of the four predictor variables. These results suggest that for unrestrained eaters key moments in eating experiences have disproportionately large influence on remembered enjoyment of eating.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)207-212
    Number of pages6
    Issue number1
    Publication statusPublished - Aug 2011


    • Dietary restraint
    • Food memories
    • Hedonics

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Psychology(all)
    • Nutrition and Dietetics


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