Palmitoylation gates phosphorylation-dependent regulation of BK potassium channels

Lijun Tian, Owen Jeffries, Heather McClafferty, Adam Molyvdas, Iain C M Rowe, Fozia Saleem, Lie Chen, Jennifer Greaves, Luke H Chamberlain, Hans-Guenther Knaus, Peter Ruth, Michael J Shipston

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Large conductance calcium- and voltage-gated potassium (BK) channels are important regulators of physiological homeostasis and their function is potently modulated by protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylation. PKA regulates the channel through phosphorylation of residues within the intracellular C terminus of the pore-forming alpha-subunits. However, the molecular mechanism(s) by which phosphorylation of the alpha-subunit effects changes in channel activity are unknown. Inhibition of BK channels by PKA depends on phosphorylation of only a single alpha-subunit in the channel tetramer containing an alternatively spliced insert (STREX) suggesting that phosphorylation results in major conformational rearrangements of the C terminus. Here, we define the mechanism of PKA inhibition of BK channels and demonstrate that this regulation is conditional on the palmitoylation status of the channel. We show that the cytosolic C terminus of the STREX BK channel uniquely interacts with the plasma membrane via palmitoylation of evolutionarily conserved cysteine residues in the STREX insert. PKA phosphorylation of the serine residue immediately upstream of the conserved palmitoylated cysteine residues within STREX dissociates the C terminus from the plasma membrane, inhibiting STREX channel activity. Abolition of STREX palmitoylation by site-directed mutagenesis or pharmacological inhibition of palmitoyl transferases prevents PKA-mediated inhibition of BK channels. Thus, palmitoylation gates BK channel regulation by PKA phosphorylation. Palmitoylation and phosphorylation are both dynamically regulated; thus, cross-talk between these 2 major posttranslational signaling cascades provides a mechanism for conditional regulation of BK channels. Interplay of these distinct signaling cascades has important implications for the dynamic regulation of BK channels and physiological homeostasis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)21006-21011
Number of pages6
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Volume105
Issue number52
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 30 Dec 2008

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Lipoylation
Large-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels
Potassium Channels
Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases
Phosphorylation
Cysteine
Homeostasis
Cell Membrane
Voltage-Gated Potassium Channels
Transferases
Site-Directed Mutagenesis
Serine
Pharmacology
Calcium

Keywords

  • Animals
  • Cell Line
  • Cell Membrane
  • Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases
  • Homeostasis
  • Humans
  • Large-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channel alpha Subunits
  • Mice
  • Mutagenesis, Site-Directed
  • Palmitic Acid
  • Phosphorylation
  • Protein Processing, Post-Translational
  • Protein Structure, Tertiary
  • Signal Transduction
  • Journal Article
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Cite this

Tian, L., Jeffries, O., McClafferty, H., Molyvdas, A., Rowe, I. C. M., Saleem, F., ... Shipston, M. J. (2008). Palmitoylation gates phosphorylation-dependent regulation of BK potassium channels. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 105(52), 21006-21011. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0806700106

Palmitoylation gates phosphorylation-dependent regulation of BK potassium channels. / Tian, Lijun; Jeffries, Owen; McClafferty, Heather; Molyvdas, Adam; Rowe, Iain C M; Saleem, Fozia; Chen, Lie; Greaves, Jennifer; Chamberlain, Luke H; Knaus, Hans-Guenther; Ruth, Peter; Shipston, Michael J.

In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol. 105, No. 52, 30.12.2008, p. 21006-21011.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Tian, L, Jeffries, O, McClafferty, H, Molyvdas, A, Rowe, ICM, Saleem, F, Chen, L, Greaves, J, Chamberlain, LH, Knaus, H-G, Ruth, P & Shipston, MJ 2008, 'Palmitoylation gates phosphorylation-dependent regulation of BK potassium channels' Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 105, no. 52, pp. 21006-21011. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0806700106
Tian, Lijun ; Jeffries, Owen ; McClafferty, Heather ; Molyvdas, Adam ; Rowe, Iain C M ; Saleem, Fozia ; Chen, Lie ; Greaves, Jennifer ; Chamberlain, Luke H ; Knaus, Hans-Guenther ; Ruth, Peter ; Shipston, Michael J. / Palmitoylation gates phosphorylation-dependent regulation of BK potassium channels. In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2008 ; Vol. 105, No. 52. pp. 21006-21011.
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abstract = "Large conductance calcium- and voltage-gated potassium (BK) channels are important regulators of physiological homeostasis and their function is potently modulated by protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylation. PKA regulates the channel through phosphorylation of residues within the intracellular C terminus of the pore-forming alpha-subunits. However, the molecular mechanism(s) by which phosphorylation of the alpha-subunit effects changes in channel activity are unknown. Inhibition of BK channels by PKA depends on phosphorylation of only a single alpha-subunit in the channel tetramer containing an alternatively spliced insert (STREX) suggesting that phosphorylation results in major conformational rearrangements of the C terminus. Here, we define the mechanism of PKA inhibition of BK channels and demonstrate that this regulation is conditional on the palmitoylation status of the channel. We show that the cytosolic C terminus of the STREX BK channel uniquely interacts with the plasma membrane via palmitoylation of evolutionarily conserved cysteine residues in the STREX insert. PKA phosphorylation of the serine residue immediately upstream of the conserved palmitoylated cysteine residues within STREX dissociates the C terminus from the plasma membrane, inhibiting STREX channel activity. Abolition of STREX palmitoylation by site-directed mutagenesis or pharmacological inhibition of palmitoyl transferases prevents PKA-mediated inhibition of BK channels. Thus, palmitoylation gates BK channel regulation by PKA phosphorylation. Palmitoylation and phosphorylation are both dynamically regulated; thus, cross-talk between these 2 major posttranslational signaling cascades provides a mechanism for conditional regulation of BK channels. Interplay of these distinct signaling cascades has important implications for the dynamic regulation of BK channels and physiological homeostasis.",
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T1 - Palmitoylation gates phosphorylation-dependent regulation of BK potassium channels

AU - Tian, Lijun

AU - Jeffries, Owen

AU - McClafferty, Heather

AU - Molyvdas, Adam

AU - Rowe, Iain C M

AU - Saleem, Fozia

AU - Chen, Lie

AU - Greaves, Jennifer

AU - Chamberlain, Luke H

AU - Knaus, Hans-Guenther

AU - Ruth, Peter

AU - Shipston, Michael J

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N2 - Large conductance calcium- and voltage-gated potassium (BK) channels are important regulators of physiological homeostasis and their function is potently modulated by protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylation. PKA regulates the channel through phosphorylation of residues within the intracellular C terminus of the pore-forming alpha-subunits. However, the molecular mechanism(s) by which phosphorylation of the alpha-subunit effects changes in channel activity are unknown. Inhibition of BK channels by PKA depends on phosphorylation of only a single alpha-subunit in the channel tetramer containing an alternatively spliced insert (STREX) suggesting that phosphorylation results in major conformational rearrangements of the C terminus. Here, we define the mechanism of PKA inhibition of BK channels and demonstrate that this regulation is conditional on the palmitoylation status of the channel. We show that the cytosolic C terminus of the STREX BK channel uniquely interacts with the plasma membrane via palmitoylation of evolutionarily conserved cysteine residues in the STREX insert. PKA phosphorylation of the serine residue immediately upstream of the conserved palmitoylated cysteine residues within STREX dissociates the C terminus from the plasma membrane, inhibiting STREX channel activity. Abolition of STREX palmitoylation by site-directed mutagenesis or pharmacological inhibition of palmitoyl transferases prevents PKA-mediated inhibition of BK channels. Thus, palmitoylation gates BK channel regulation by PKA phosphorylation. Palmitoylation and phosphorylation are both dynamically regulated; thus, cross-talk between these 2 major posttranslational signaling cascades provides a mechanism for conditional regulation of BK channels. Interplay of these distinct signaling cascades has important implications for the dynamic regulation of BK channels and physiological homeostasis.

AB - Large conductance calcium- and voltage-gated potassium (BK) channels are important regulators of physiological homeostasis and their function is potently modulated by protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylation. PKA regulates the channel through phosphorylation of residues within the intracellular C terminus of the pore-forming alpha-subunits. However, the molecular mechanism(s) by which phosphorylation of the alpha-subunit effects changes in channel activity are unknown. Inhibition of BK channels by PKA depends on phosphorylation of only a single alpha-subunit in the channel tetramer containing an alternatively spliced insert (STREX) suggesting that phosphorylation results in major conformational rearrangements of the C terminus. Here, we define the mechanism of PKA inhibition of BK channels and demonstrate that this regulation is conditional on the palmitoylation status of the channel. We show that the cytosolic C terminus of the STREX BK channel uniquely interacts with the plasma membrane via palmitoylation of evolutionarily conserved cysteine residues in the STREX insert. PKA phosphorylation of the serine residue immediately upstream of the conserved palmitoylated cysteine residues within STREX dissociates the C terminus from the plasma membrane, inhibiting STREX channel activity. Abolition of STREX palmitoylation by site-directed mutagenesis or pharmacological inhibition of palmitoyl transferases prevents PKA-mediated inhibition of BK channels. Thus, palmitoylation gates BK channel regulation by PKA phosphorylation. Palmitoylation and phosphorylation are both dynamically regulated; thus, cross-talk between these 2 major posttranslational signaling cascades provides a mechanism for conditional regulation of BK channels. Interplay of these distinct signaling cascades has important implications for the dynamic regulation of BK channels and physiological homeostasis.

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KW - Cell Line

KW - Cell Membrane

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KW - Large-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channel alpha Subunits

KW - Mice

KW - Mutagenesis, Site-Directed

KW - Palmitic Acid

KW - Phosphorylation

KW - Protein Processing, Post-Translational

KW - Protein Structure, Tertiary

KW - Signal Transduction

KW - Journal Article

KW - Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

U2 - 10.1073/pnas.0806700106

DO - 10.1073/pnas.0806700106

M3 - Article

VL - 105

SP - 21006

EP - 21011

JO - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

JF - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

SN - 0027-8424

IS - 52

ER -